If the body is producing large amounts of sebum (the oil that keeps our skin moist), dead skin cells can become trapped inside the pores and cause white or blackheads. Bacteria living on the skin are also trapped in the pore, causing inflamed pimples to appear. It usually occurs on the face, forehead, chest, upper back, and shoulders. Although acne affects people of all ages, it is most common among teenagers.
WHAT IS ACNE ?
Today, it is the most common skin disease that can be seen in men and women of all ages. Acne, which is the most important problem of adolescence, is caused by the effect of hormones. Acne that occurs at any age after the age of 20 is defined as adult acne. Adult acne is more resistant to treatment than adolescent acne and is more common in women.
"Acne vulgaris", which occurs in oily areas of the skin and is popularly known as acne, normally occurs in the form of red, yellow inflamed or non-inflamed blisters, black spots (open comedones), white small bumps (closed comedones) or cystic structures. The most common facial acne can also occur on the shoulders, neck, chest v-region, back, scalp, and upper arms. It is important to make an early diagnosis and apply appropriate treatment, as it is likely to leave a scar and reduces the person's social self-confidence.
Different treatments can be applied according to the type of acne. Acne is a disease that requires medical care and treatment, regardless of age and severity. However, a medical treatment can destroy acne lesions. First of all, if there is an underlying disease, this should be investigated by dermatology doctors. Acne is not a contagious disease. A wrong application can cause an increase in acne and scarring on the skin. In addition, if acne is not treated, the risk of scarring increases. It is important to treat acne in the early stages, as it is a longer process to treat these scars that occur later. Thanks to new technologies, it is possible to quickly return to daily life with short recovery times.
The signs and symptoms of acne vary depending on the severity of your condition:
Pimples with white tips
Small red, tender bumps (papules)
Large, solid, lumps (nodules) below the surface of the skin that can be painful
Pus-filled lumps (cystic lesions) below the surface of the skin, which can be painful
Often, acne inflammation causes general redness and tenderness. As acne progresses, additional symptoms may include dark spots and scars. Early treatment can prevent severe dark spots and scars from developing before acne progresses to cysts and nodules.
WHAT ARE THE CAUSES OF ACNE ?
Many factors play a role in its formation. In genetically susceptible individuals, the thickening of the hair-oil gland channel, where the oil secretion is thrown out of the skin, and the tendency of the channel to become blocked due to the stickiness of the cells there are an important factor. Other factors are that the increased oil secretion (sebum) during puberty accumulates in this channel and forms black or white dots called comedones. Physical factors as well as genetic factors play a role in the clogging of pores. Physical factors include the use of oily creams, hot weather, increased sweating, make-up and not using suitable skin cleansers. Other causes of acne include; The bacteria settle in the sebum in these clogged pores and cause an inflammation, that is, inflammation. Redness and inflamed pimples can be seen on our skin in acne that occurs in this way.
HOW IS ACNE DIAGNOSED?
The clinical symptoms of acne are as follows;
Non-inflammatory acne lesions: Blackheads (open comedones), whiteheads (closed comedones)
Inflamed acne lesions: Yellow pus-filled bumps (pustules), red raised lesions (papules), abscess formation
Acne scars: Those with a hard-puffy appearance, pits in the form of holes (ice pit)
If one or more of the symptoms accompanying acne, such as menstrual irregularity, hair growth problem, thinning of the hair in the crown area, and increased lubrication especially around the waist, are present, the patient should be evaluated hormonally. Underlying causes may be polycystic ovary, adrenal gland disease or insulin metabolism disorder. Local or systemic cortisone treatments, hormone treatments with high progesterone content, vitamin B12 supplements, some antidepressant drugs can cause adult acne.
Acne can be seen in many different forms according to its clinical features. Comedogenic acne, the mildest form, appears as blackheads or white buttons, while those in the inflamed form are called pustules. The most severe form is nodules and cysts; these are observed as painful large hardness under the skin and can cause permanent scars on the skin. Acne can be seen not only on the face, but also on areas such as the chest and back. Deterioration of physical image can lead to psychological stress and tension. Distancing from society, unhappiness, and even the development of depression can be observed.
KNOWN MISTAKES ABOUT ACNE!
Acne is caused by dirty skin. The main cause of acne is excessive oil production from the sebaceous glands and this has nothing to do with skin hygiene.
Acne occurs only in people with oily skin. Oil production occurs in all skin types. Therefore, acne can occur in any skin type.
Acne is caused by fatty foods. There is no data that definitively proves this situation.
Sunlight is good for acne. Sunlight dries out the skin and can reduce acne breakouts in some people. However, in some cases, sunlight triggers and increases acne breakouts.
HOW IS ACNE TREATED?
There are different types of acne. More than one type is usually seen together in a patient. First of all, if there are nodulo-cystic lesions, their treatment is started. Because this type causes scar formation the most. It can be injected into them, the contents can be emptied, it is supported by oral treatments. Then, subcutaneous cleansing, peelings, oral medical treatments and local treatments are applied to regulate the increased oil secretion that causes acne in the substructure of the skin and the deteriorated structure on the skin.
Acne treatment cannot be done with a standard procedure. A unique treatment program is determined by taking into consideration the patient's examination findings and general medical history.
People with acne seeking remedies from some cosmetic creams, lotions and beauty salons may cause the disease to worsen and leave scars. For this reason, acne treatment should only be done by dermatologists who are experts in their field.
Depending on the type of acne, removing blackheads, chemical peeling (with salicylic acid, etc.), draining cysts can be applied.
For scar treatment after acne (acne) treatment, Gold Needle Radiofrequency, Fractional CO2 Laser, Dermapen, Light treatments and PRP, vitamins, peptide solutions are used to strengthen the effect of devices.
It is one of the most preferred and full results applications in recent years. In acne treatments with laser, treatment is applied without damaging the skin structure or fat tissues. It is ensured that the bacteria that cause acne are destroyed and the clogged fat cells in the lower layers of the skin are cleaned.
In laser treatment, problems that cause blockage are eliminated by heating and radiation. The skin pores are opened and cleaned. At the same time, by tightening the pores, a smoother and clearer skin structure is obtained.
Laser treatments are applied depending on the skin structure of the people and according to the types of acne. Laser treatment is applied according to different acne vulvaris intensities such as face area, back area, eye.
It can be used alone in those with mild acne. To be effective, they must be used regularly, most of them can cause side effects such as redness, dandruff, itching. These effects last 2-3 weeks, then decrease. To prevent these side effects, it must be applied 1 to 3 nights at the first, then it must be applied for a few hours and then washing up the time. If necessary, the treatment should be continued after a break for a while. It should be applied to all oily skin, not just acne. At this stage, comedolytics (azelaic acid, retinoic acid, benzoyl peroxide, salicylic acid, etc.), antibiotics (tetracycline, nadifloxacin, clindamycin, sodium sulfacetamide, azithromycin) or their combinations are recommended and used for a certain period of time.
It is preferred in patients with more severe acne or who do not benefit from creams. The duration of treatment should not exceed 3-4 months. It should never be used alone, it should be used together with the cream that will prevent antibiotic resistance recommended by the physician. Or superbacteria resistant to all antibiotics develop. These treatments are antibiotics (azithromycin, tetracycline) and isotretinoin, a vitamin a derivative. The dermatologist should decide how much these drugs will be used.
Isotretinoin (roaccutane®) treatment is the only treatment that is effective for all known acne forms on the market. After treatment, it provides a definitive solution in many patients, and then reduces the recurrence of lesions. Recurrence of the disease, which we call recurrence or relapse, is observed after all other treatments, but it recurs in much fewer patients after isotretinoin treatment. Although this treatment is very effective, it also has various side effects, but most of these side effects disappear during or after the treatment. For this reason, you should definitely consult the doctor who followed you with all your complaints. The most important side effect is the effects of dryness on the skin. It can increase blood lipids and rarely adversely affect liver tests. For this reason, you will need to have blood tests at certain intervals, usually with the decision of your doctor. The most important point when using the drug is that you do not become pregnant. It is recommended that women of childbearing age should be protected with at least two methods of contraception. Pregnancy test should be done before the treatment, pregnancy test may be requested during the treatment. It is possible to get pregnant 2 months after stopping treatment.
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS
What if acne is not treated?
Acne is a disease that needs to be treated because it is chronic, causes psychological stress, and can leave permanent scars if left untreated. It is a disease that must be treated by a doctor, preferably by a dermatologist (especially in severe cases) due to many reasons such as the presence of different accompanying diseases, the fact that some drugs cause acne and many inappropriate products on the market are tried in the treatment of acne. Patients who do not apply for treatment are generally those who have lost their belief that their disease will pass, or who do not see acne as a disease and think that it will pass without treatment. For this reason, one should know that this disease, which is seen in adolescence when body and self anxiety is high and affects the psychology of patients, is a treatable disease and should seek appropriate treatment by consulting a dermatologist. In addition, it should be waited for at least 2-3 weeks for the treatments given to take effect. Therefore, the most important point in treatment; to be patient, to be in harmony with the physician, to follow the recommendations given. Compliance with the patient will make it easier to achieve the desired result in this disease, which has many treatment options.
Can acne recur? Is Permanent Acne Possible?
The possibility of recurrence after acne treatment occurs in the following types of situations;
Consuming excessive fatty foods
Not giving due importance to the skin
prevent skin hydration
If you do not want to experience acne (acne) discomfort again, it is important to follow the doctor's advice, it will reduce the rate of your acne in the future.
Is there a relationship between diet and acne?
We can find it indirectly, if not directly. The reason is that if you consume products with a high glycemic index, acne may occur as the skin will become oily again. Consuming foods with a low glycemic index will be beneficial for both your health and your skin.
Is acne treatment painful?
Acne treatments are painless treatments. No side effects are observed.
How to prevent acne formation?
Acne is a disease that requires dermatological treatment. Many treatment strategies, such as topical creams and oral antibiotics, and isotretinoin, the synthetic vitamin A precursor, shorten the course of the disease, reduce its severity, and minimize scar formation.
Acne patients often have oily skin. To reduce facial glare, patients wash their faces frequently. But excessive face washing causes dryness, which hinders an effective treatment. Soaps suitable for skin pH are recommended for patients to wash their faces. These soaps reduce the bacterial flora of the skin. Washing twice a day is recommended at most.
Many women and men want to close their acne lesions. For this, thin, water-based cosmetics that come off easily when washed should be preferred. But when using cosmetics, the face must be cleaned before going to sleep or before applying treatment creams.
Can cosmetic products be used during acne treatment?
Cosmetic products recommended by the dermatologist can be used during acne treatment. These products can be cleansing soaps or lotions, moisturizing products, care products.
Is Make-up Applied During Acne Treatment?
It is not recommended to wear make-up in the treatment of acne. The makeup products used should be chosen very carefully. Although the products are chosen with great care during acne treatment, it is still beneficial not to use them. Especially due to applications such as foundation and concealer that close the skin pores, the formation of acne on the skin increases. The pores are clogged and the skin cannot breathe. Along with acne on the skin, different skin problems begin to appear. Blackheads and dry skin are among the other problems that accompany acne. Instead of applying make-up, the person should be at peace with his skin, clean his skin and use drugs as recommended by the specialist. In this way, people will get rid of their acne after the necessary time. Mineral concealers suitable for acne-prone skin can be used.
When should you call your doctor?
Acne is a common condition. If you have severe or scarring acne that does not go away with home care, consult your doctor.