Seborrheic dermatitis is a common skin condition that mainly affects the scalp. It causes scaly patches, skin flushing and persistent, persistent dandruff. Apart from the scalp, seborrheic dermatitis can also affect areas of the body that are more oily, such as the sides of the nose, chest, eyelids, eyebrows, ears, and face.
WHAT IS SEBORRHEIC DERMATITIS ?
Seborrheic Dermatitis is a common skin condition that causes white or red patches on the scalp, face, chest, back, arms, legs, feet, and groin area.
Seborrheic dermatitis is a common skin condition caused by an overgrowth of yeast in hair follicles. It is usually seen in people who have oily skin and/or use harsh soaps or shampoos.
Seborrheic dermatitis is a common problem that affects millions of people each year. This condition often appears as small bumps that have a yellowish color. These bumps are called sebaceous hyperplasia. They can appear anywhere on the body, but are most commonly found on the scalp, face, and upper body.
There are two types of seborrheic dermatitis, infancy and adult. Infancy type seborrheic eczema often starts in the first three months and regresses around the age of one. In adults, it usually occurs after puberty. It is more common in men than in women. It is most common in those with oily skin.
SEBORRHEIC DERMATITIS SYMPTOMS
Symptoms of seborrheic dermatitis may differ from person to person, depending on the severity of the disease and environmental factors. Seborrheic dermatitis can also be confused with other skin diseases.
Dry skin and scaly lesions on this skin
The appearance of dandruff on the scalp
Exfoliation of yellow or white skin due to crusts on the skin surface and dryness of the skin
Dry skin but oily appearance
collection of water in the skin
Skin rashes and sometimes swelling
Differences in skin color
Sensitivity and sensitivity on the skin
Persistent itching and skin injuries during itching.
WHAT ARE THE CAUSES OF SEBORRHEIC DERMATITIS?
The conditions that cause seborrheic dermatitis have not been fully elucidated yet. However, there are some situations that experts think may be effective in the development of the disease. The first of these occurs when a fungus called Malassezia Furfur affects the parts of the skin responsible for oil production. Normally, the fungus Malassezia furfur is also found in normal, healthy skin. However, in people whose skin is prone to oily skin or when the immune system is weakened, this fungus can spread and cause skin problems.
Other conditions that are thought to play a role in the development of seborrheic dermatitis are impaired immune response (immunosuppression), Parkinson's disease, facial palsy, changes in nutrition (zinc deficiency, niacin and pyridoxine deficiency).
There are several factors that can increase a person's risk of developing seborrheic dermatitis. These risk factors are:
AIDS, some types of cancer, and use of immunosuppressive drugs, which cause weakening of the immune system
After severe medical conditions such as heart attack, stroke
Psychiatric and neurological diseases such as Parkinson's disease, depression
It can be listed as some drugs.
Seborrheic dermatitis is most common in infants and adults aged 20-50 years. This disease is more common in men than women. Again, people with oily skin type have an increased risk of seborrheic dermatitis.
HOW IS SEBORRHEIC DERMATITIS DIAGNOSED?
In order to diagnose seborrheic dermatitis, the doctor first performs a physical examination and aims to learn about the patient's health history by asking various questions. The individual should discuss all the symptoms they observe with the doctor during this examination and share information about other conditions or diseases they may have.
The doctor will be able to determine if you have seborrheic dermatitis by examining the individual's skin during the physical exam. To rule out conditions with symptoms similar to seborrheic dermatitis, the doctor may scrape the skin cells and take a biopsy sample for examination in the laboratory.
Medical conditions that are similar to seborrheic dermatitis commonly include atopic dermatitis (eczema, rosacea, psoriasis, and tinea versicolor).
Atopic dermatitis is a reaction of the skin and includes signs and symptoms in the form of itchy, inflamed skin in the folds of the elbows, behind the knees, or on the front of the neck. Atopic dermatitis is a frequently recurrent disease. Rose disease occurs on the face and shows itself with very little scaling. Psoriasis simultaneously causes dandruff and reddened skin covered with flakes and scales. The scaling of the skin due to psoriasis is usually abundant and has a silvery-white color. Tinea versicolor is observed as a rash, seen on the trunk, but in many cases there are no reddened areas of the skin as commonly seen in seborrheic dermatitis.
HOW IS SEBORRHEIC DERMATITIS TREATED?
Seborrheic dermatitis can sometimes heal on its own, but may recur after it has healed. In order to avoid this situation, it is necessary to apply a regular treatment as recommended by the dermatologist, but it is still not possible to completely treat seborrheic dermatitis and prevent it from recurring. The goals in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis are to eliminate crusting and dandruff on the skin, to prevent yeast colonization and secondary infections that may cause disease, and to minimize intense itching and erythema.
In this regular treatment, dermatology doctors usually treat with the application of anti-fungal shampoo and anti-fungal cream. Drugs used in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis are divided into prescription drugs and over-the-counter drugs. These drugs include local steroids, antifungals, local metronidazole, vitamin D3 analogs, isotretinoins. At the same time, one of the treatment options can be counted as phototherapy. Regular skin care is also very important in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis. The dermatologist determines the treatment according to the severity of the disease, the frequency of the symptoms and their location.
Seborrheic dermatitis on the scalp of babies usually heals on its own.
Drugs used in the treatment of seborrheic:
Shampoo, cream and ointments that reduce inflammation
Various corticosteroid-containing products can be applied to the scalp. These products are very easy to use products. However, care should be taken to use the minimum dose required during use. Continuous long-term use of these products; may cause side effects such as thinning of the skin and permanent redness. Creams containing tacrolimus and pimecrolimus, which belong to the calcineurin inhibitor drug group, can also be used in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis. The side effects of these products are less than the side effects of products containing corticosteroids. Its effects such as burning, redness and sensitivity are at a tolerable level.
Creams and shampoos containing antifungal:
Depending on the severity of the patient's symptoms, the doctor may prescribe antifungal (antifungal) creams and shampoos called ketoconazole.
Pills containing antifungal
If the patient's symptoms do not improve with other treatments, oral antifungal drugs can be used under the control of your dermatologist.
LIFESTYLE CHANGES AND HOME CARE FOR SEBORRHEIC DERMATITIS
Washing hair regularly with shampoo can be a first step to the effect. If regular shampoos do not help with dandruff, it may be effective for the individual to try over-the-counter dandruff shampoos. The individual should use shampoo daily until signs and symptoms begin to subside, then use once to three times a week as signs and symptoms begin to disappear.
In some cases, a type of shampoo may work for a period of time and then lose its effectiveness. In such cases it is necessary to try to switch between two or more species. During the washing process with the shampoo, the shampoo should be kept on the affected area for the recommended time. This allows the components of the shampoo to work effectively. The shampoos can be gently rubbed onto the face, ears and chest, and other affected areas and rinsed off completely.
Various self-care tips can help an individual control seborrheic dermatitis. For example, softening the hair with olive oil or suitable mineral oils and then combing, brushing and washing the hair to remove dandruff can help the individual. The skin should be washed regularly, after washing the soap should be completely rinsed from the skin and hair. Avoiding harsh soaps and using a moisturizer may be helpful.
In cases where the situation does not improve with attention to hygiene habits, it may be effective to try a mild corticosteroid cream on the affected area, and if it does not work, to apply anti-fungal creams. These creams should be kept away from the eyes.
Individuals with a beard or mustache should shampoo them regularly. Seborrheic dermatitis may be more severe under the mustache and beard. It may be effective for a person to use shampoo containing 1 percent ketoconazole daily until your symptoms improve, and then switch to shampooing once a week. Shaving regularly and staying with a clean face can alleviate an individual's symptoms.
Individuals with seborrheic dermatitis should avoid styling products and stop using hair sprays, gels, and other styling products throughout the treatment process. Similarly, skin and hair products containing alcohol should be avoided. These can cause an exacerbation of the disease.
Opting for plain-textured, cotton clothing helps fresh air circulate freely around the individual's skin and reduces irritation.
Individuals with signs of redness or scaling on the eyelids should gently wash the eyelids with baby shampoo every night, and wipe the skin scales with a cotton swab. Warm compresses are another method that can help relax the eyelid.
The scalp of babies with seborrheic dermatitis should be gently washed with a non-medicated baby shampoo once a day. It may be possible to gently loosen crusts and skin scales with a small, soft-bristled brush before rinsing off the shampoo. If the flaking continues, it may be effective to first apply the appropriate mineral oil to the scalp for a few hours as recommended by the doctor.
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS
What is the role of vitamins in the formation of seborrheic dermatitis?
Excess vitamin A intake, especially in children, causes seborrheic dermatitis. Biotin, zinc, pyridoxine (vitamin B6) and riboflavin (vitamin B2) deficiency can cause disease.
Is there a relationship between seborrheic dermatitis and the immune system?
There is a predisposition to this disease in weakened immune system or immune system diseases (HIV infection etc.)
Does seborrheic dermatitis cause hair loss?
There is no consensus that seborrheic dermatitis causes hair loss, but patients usually complain that their hair does not fall during the periods of the disease.
Hair problems and loss in seborrheic dermatitis; It can be explained by the deterioration of the nutrition of the hair follicles caused by the inflammation in the scalp, traumatic excessive scratching and the accumulation of oil (seborrhea) on the scalp.
Which shampoos should be preferred in seborrheic dermatitis?
In seborrheic dermatitis; Antiseborrheic (eliminating lubrication) and antifungal (anti-fungal) shampoos are used. Since there are so many products in the market, shampoos with proper content should be preferred, which will not show an allergic reaction, recommended by a dermatologist.
In which areas does facial seborrheic dermatitis occur?
Seborrheic dermatitis on the face is mostly seen in the hairline, eyebrows, between the eyebrows, the sides of the nose, cheeks, inside the ears and behind the ears. It can cause dandruff in the eyebrows and eyelashes, redness on the cheeks and nose edges. In men, it can be seen in the form of hair follicle inflammation in the beard area.